Janiszewski, P. and Kolasa, S. 2006. Zoometric Characteristics of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.) Stags from Northern Poland. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 122-127 (Brief Report)

Carcass weight, antler weight and zoometric measurements of 98 Red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) stags harvested in northern Poland were analysed in the study. In order to compare their carcass parameters, the stags were divided by age into six classes. A statistical analysis of results provided the basis for describing model red deer stags representative of particular age groups. The average carcass weight of stags in six classes was the following: stags aged two years – 67.64 kg, stags aged three to four years – 82.17 kg, stags aged five to six years – 102.40 kg, stags aged seven to eight years – 122.13 kg, stags aged nine to ten years – 143.44 kg, stags aged 11 years and older – 149.60 kg. Antler weight ranged from 0.62 kg in two–year–old stags to about 6 kg in the oldest ones. All carcass traits examined in the study were interrelated, as confirmed by highly significant coefficients of correlation (r↬.6). This suggests that they are good indicators of body conformation in red deer stags.

Key words: Cervus elaphus, carcass weight, measurements, antlers

Läänelaid, A. and Nurkse, A. 2006. Dating of a 17th Century Painting by Tree Rings of Baltic Oak. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 117-121

Tree rings of an oak (Quercus robur L.) panel with painting of the Dutch Hans van Essen, a ’Still life with a lobster’, established the period of origin of that piece of art deposited in the Estonian Art Museum in Tallinn. The ring width sequence was compared with Baltic oak tree-ring chronologies by T. Wazny and J. Hillam and I. Tyers. These references gave the last annual ring of the painted panel to be from AD 1600. High similarity of the tree–ring series shows that the oak of the panel is of Baltic origin. The outermost rings of the oak tree, including the sapwood, have been cut off. The approximate number of sapwood rings of oaks is known. It points the probable painting time between AD 1617 and 1623. This dating fits into the life years of Hans van Essen (1587 or 1589 to 1642 or 1648).

Key words: annual rings,oak panel,H. van Essen, painting, 17th century, dendrochronological dating



Lang, M., Jürjo, M., Adermann, V. and Korjus, H. 2006. Integrated Approach for Quantitative Assessment of Illegal Forest Fellings in Estonia. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 103-109

Change detection from multitemporal Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images was combined with fieldwork and GIS analysis to estimate the share of the illegally felled timber in Estonia for the period ranging from 1999 to 2002. A sample of changed areas (667) was selected from digital change map for the field inspection and detailed analysis. Map layers were created to represent the extent of problems found in the field. Finally, the problem layers were intersected to discriminate between different rule violation combinations and analyse their overlapping. A regression function was developed on the National Forest Inventory data for wood volume estimation. The results showed that for 9.4% of the felling areas the forest management declaration (FMD) was not submitted. 10.3% of the felled timber volume was related at least to one violation of forest felling regulations and 6.3% of the felled timber was connected to the environmental damages and unsustainable forest management. Rather high share of timber (3.6%) that was officially related to the forest theft may indicate the highly problematic issues of legalising (for the forest owner) the illegal logging. Forest management declarations are unreliable source for estimating the state level total volume felled, but they can be probably used to estimate the total logging area.

Key words: change detection, illegal forest felling, satellite images, forest management

Cedro, A. 2006. Comparative Dendroclimatological Studies of the Impact of Temperature and Rainfall on Pinus nigra Arnold and Pinus sylvestris in Northwestern Poland. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 110-116

The research focused on two pine species; the native one for the investigated area – Pinus sylvestris, and species introduced from S Europe – Pinus nigra. The analysed trees grow in the municipal forests in Szczecin (NW Poland). The chronology established for the black pine spans 108 years (1895-2002), and the master pattern for the Scots pine consists of 115 annual growth rings (1886-2000). The constructed chronologies were used as a basis for dendroclimatological analyses: response function and signature years. Both analyses have demonstrated different relations between the increments and climate at the investigated pine species, in spite of high similarity of the discussed chronologies (Gl = 71.9%, t = 5.21). The native pinus display high sensitivity on thermal conditions in winter (especially February) and in the beginning of spring, whereas the amount of rainfall in the vegetation season proves to be of lower importance. On the contrary, the cambium activity of the black pine is highly dependent on the amount of rainfall in the vegetation season (positive significant values of correlation and regression for May, June and July), whereas winter (February) thermal conditions may be considered as an additional factor affecting the tree growth.

Key words: tree – ring width, dendroclimatology, climatic conditions, signature years, response function, Pinus nigra Arnold, Pinus sylvestris L., NW Poland

Laitila, J. and Asikainen, A. 2006. Energy Wood Logging from Early Thinnings by Harwarder Method. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 94-102

During the last decade harwarders have been developed for both industrial roundwood and energy wood harvesting. This article looks into the productivity results obtained by a conventional forwarder equipped with the Moipu 400 E energy wood harwarder grip in thinning a young stand. Productivity functions for the harwarder logging were formulated by applying a regression analysis in which the harvesting conditions (tree volume, cutting removal, forwarding distance etc.) were independent variables. The logging productivity of small trees with branches using the harwarder method, was 3.3 m³/Eo–h (effective working hour), when the tree volume was 25 dm³, accumulation of energy wood 50 m³ per hectare, load volume 6.2 m³ and forwarding distance 250 m. Felling and bunching represented 45 % of the energy wood harwarders effective working time. Making a strip road took 18 % of the total time consumption and loading of felled trees 17 %. Time consumption of forwarding was 6 % loaded and 5 % unloaded. Moving during cutting and loading and unloading at landing represented both 5 % of the effective working time.

Key words: young stand thinning, harwarder, energy wood, productivity functions, logging